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Appreciate the development history of crystal glass and grasp the market dynamics

with the progress of people's living standards, crystal has become popular in China. Famous brand fashions such as Chanel and Dior are also decorated with swaroskicrystal. Crystal has also moved from jewelry, ornaments and exhibits to fashion, shoes and hats, clocks and watches

some famous foreign construction glass enterprises also produce crystal flat glass and crystal glass construction products, which are applied in high-end buildings Abroad, crystal clubs have sprung up very early, with a large number of crystal fans There are also Crystal City, Crystal Palace and other counties, cities and towns specializing in crystal glass processing

however, at present, crystal, as referred to in non academic newspapers, stations, enterprise publicity materials at home and abroad, is not the traditional quartz crystal according to the Chinese translation of the dictionary, nor is it K9 optical glass used by some crystal cities at home to process crystal balls and crystal handicrafts. Crystal glass is crystal glass In the East China Sea and other quartz producing areas in Jiangsu Province, the crystal is still the traditional quartz crystal

this paper discusses the evolution, current situation and development direction of crystal glass

the development history of crystal glass

crystal glass has a long history. In ancient times, because there were many impurities in glass raw materials, the melting temperature was not high, the glass did not melt well, and there were a large number of defects such as unmelted sand particles and bubbles. At the same time, there were many colored metal ions such as iron, manganese and titanium in raw materials, and the glass was often opaque or translucent In the 13th century, Venetians used quartzite with less impurities and Levant's sodium containing plant ash to melt into colorless and transparent glass In the 15th century, the quality of raw materials was further improved. Using pure quartz sand and soda ash recrystallized in the boiling water solution of plant ash in the lower reaches of Ticino River, the transparency of the glass obtained was significantly improved than in the past, which was similar to crystal. Therefore, it was named Cristallo, which is a sodium calcium crystal, and its composition range (mass fraction) is [1]sio270.0%~71.5%, Al2O3 30.8%~1.31%, Cao 4.07%~4.72%, mgo1.47%~1.66%, K2O 2.84%~4.55%, na2o15.2%~16.8% Fe2o30.25%~0.51%, mno0.26%~0.51%, so30.19%~0.31%, cl0.62%~0.92%, p2o50.15%~0.24%. Fe2O3 and MnO are impurities in mineral raw materials, and Cl and P2O5 are impurities in plant ash soda ash

the composition of soda lime crystal glass is somewhat similar to that of modern utensils. The content of K2O + Na2O is relatively high, and the content of CaO + MgO is relatively low. The glass is fusible and suitable for manual manipulation After the 13th century, Bohemians established more than a dozen glass factories in Bohemia (now the Czech Republic) and silsia. In addition to using high-quality quartz sand as raw materials, they also used forest wood ash containing potassium carbonate, such as the wood ash of beechwoods, as raw materials for the introduction of alkaline oxides, so they made transparent glass with high refractive index, also known as crystal glass, In the literature, in order to distinguish from Venice crystal glass, it is called Bohemia crystal glass. Because it uses forest wood ash as raw material, it is also called forextglass Bohemian crystal glass is composed of potassium and calcium, containing sio275%~77%, Cao 5%~6%, K2O 15%~17%. The refractive index nd of the glass is 1.48~1.49. This system is called potassium and calcium crystal glass

later, in order to improve the function, Na2O and a little B2O3 were added to the composition, which was changed to potassium sodium calcium crystal glass. At present, the composition (mass fraction) of this type of crystal glass produced in the Czech Republic is sio275.5%, b2o30.2%, cao6%, k2o4.8%, na2o12.8% Potassium calcium and potassium sodium crystal glasses are mainly produced in Nov? Bor Town, 90km away from Prague. The technical indicators of the products are: density 2.444g/cm3, refractive index Nd (20 ℃) 1.50002, and uniform dispersion (20 ℃) 830 ×, Linear expansion coefficient is 89.1 × ℃ -1, acid resistance (according to iso719 standard, the weight loss per unit area of glass surface after 0.01mol/l HCl corrosion at 98 ℃) is 1.98mg/dm2, and the liquidus temperature is 950 ℃ [2]

in the middle ages, bohemian crystal glass manufacturing technology gradually spread to central and Western Europe. Most glass factories in Britain and France used Bohemian potassium calcium and potassium sodium calcium glass components. The melting temperature was relatively high, and they needed good wood as fuel. A large number of forests were cut down. In 1615, the British royal family ordered to prohibit the use of high-quality wood as the fuel of glass factories, which affected the production of glass factories In 1670, the Englishman r also carried out a lot of research on iron-based, iron nickel based alloys and titanium alloys in recent years. Avenscroft found that adding PbO to the glass composition not only reduced the viscosity and melting temperature of the glass, but also made the glass easy to melt, with long material properties and convenient forming. In addition, the gloss of the glass increased, making it more crystal clear, and easy to engrave and grind, so lead glass was put into production, known as leadcrystal The refractive index, dispersion and density of lead crystal are higher than those of Cristallo and crystalalex, and the melting, forming and carving ability of lead crystal are better than those of sodium calcium and potassium calcium crystals, so it has been popularized Most of the world's famous crystal glass factories were established around the 18th century In 1764, ranaut set up a glass factory in a small village in baccarat, France. At that time, it was only a small family workshop, producing flat glass, mirrors and bohemian imitation crystal glass. When Ravenscroft invented lead glass, baccarat also made lead crystal. It contained PbO2 to obtain 4% of the test results and data of elongation, elongation, stress, strain, etc., which was called all lead crystal In 1830, colored crystal glass was produced. Later, opaque crystal glass, translucent imitation opal glass and agate glass were produced. Later, green opaque crystal glass was introduced. Colored and opaque crystal glass became the characteristics of bacala At the exhibition in Paris in 1855, baccarat exhibited 5.182m (17 feet) high crystal glass candlesticks and 7.010m (23 feet) crystal glass fountain bases; At the international exhibition in Lisbon in 1972, Bacara exhibited a 90.72kg (200 pound) crystal glass sculpture of the earth and moon Over the past 150 years, although the property rights have changed many times and the factory name has changed several times, baccarat's famous brand has always been popular. In France and even in Europe, when you mention lead crystal, you will think of Baccarat

in 1783, George and uncle and nephew William established a glass factory in Waterford, England, which produced all lead crystal glass containing 0% pbo3 In 1851, Britain's leading world exhibition was held in London. The designer Paxton prefabricated beams, columns and roof trusses with pig iron, and made walls and roofs with Watford glass. The Crystal Palace was built with a transparent body. The building was 563m long and 124.4m wide. The shape was a rectangular body in a strange shape, with a? The top, with a total building area of 74000m2 and a total glass area of nearly 9300m2, is called the crystalpalaceexhibition, which ushered in a new era of glass architecture and occupied an important position in the history of world architecture

compared with Venetian and Bohemian Glass with a long history, Swarovski crystal glass has only a history of more than 100 years Swarovski company was founded in 1895 by danielswarovski, a Czech, who immigrated from Bohemia to Wattens, Austria Swarovski manufactures high lead crystal glass containing pbo32%. It is especially famous for using high lead crystal as imitation diamond (Rhinestone), ruby, sapphire, amethyst, titanium sapphire, Indian ruby and translucent and opaque opaque opaque glass, such as white opal, violet opal, aquamarine opal, olivine, tourmaline, topaz, etc Swarovski set a precedent for applying crystal to fashion, shoes and hats, clocks and watches, and expanded the application range of high lead glass

the Royal glass evaluation report of St. Petersburg in Russia in the 1920s pointed out that large vases, water cans, urns and furniture were produced from the factory, and the crystal glass blue sofa was made for the king of Persia in 1828

although the Chu people in the Warring States period of our country used quartz sand, galena and barite as raw materials to make decorative glass such as sword head, sword AR and jade wall of lead barium silicate glass, these glasses are translucent or opaque dark glass, which is significantly different from modern lead crystal glass After the Western Han Dynasty, the composition of glass made in China changed from lead barium silicate to lead glass, and made glass with good light transmittance. Ancient documents believed that at this time, the appearance of glass was similar to crystal or jade, which played the effect of replacing jade, but from the perspective of things, these glasses could not be called lead crystal glass

The control rings can be switched automatically

lead glass developed in China in the 1950s, mainly flint glass of optical glass, used as optical material, and lead glass for radiation protection was developed in the 1960s It was not until the 1970s that Dalian, Shanghai and other utensils factories developed crystal glass with medium lead (PBO 24%) and high lead (PBO 30%)

in recent years, some famous traditional glassware factories in China have basically stopped producing lead crystal glass for various reasons. At present, there are two types of enterprises producing crystal glass. One is large-scale enterprises producing optical glass and special glass, which use their optical glass production equipment and technological advantages to produce lead crystal glass; The other is a joint venture or private enterprise, which uses the imported continuous melting furnace to produce high lead or medium lead crystal glass

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